Islamic history is quite complex and difficult to follow. The following are excerpts of a very short overview of the first hundred years of Islamic history by Abdullah Al-Araby who was "born, raised and educated in the Islamic World."
"After 13 years of being headquartered in Mecca, he had won no more than 100 converts. The failures, the ridicules and the threats against him by the people of Mecca, let him to a pivotal decision. In 622 A.D., he decided to relocate his ministry base from Mecca to Medina, Arabia. This action was so fundamental to the development of Islam that Muslims, later, marked it by a new hijira (migration) calendar. After moving to Medina, a new revolutionary methodology for spreading the Muslim message was introduced. The days of being a peaceful, tolerant prophet were now over. At this juncture Mohammed began to proclaim that Allah was instructing all Muslims to use swords, not just words, to fight for the cause."
"Muslims conducted a series of 27 raids on other Arabian tribes and caravans in which they killed opponents and captured goods, slaves and new territories. Mohammed personally observed 26 of these raids, and participated by fighting in 9 of them."
"Eight years after arriving in Medina, Mohammed was able to organize an army of 10,000 to attack Mecca."
"After Mohammed’s death, the various factions within Arabia revolted against Islam. The successors of Mohammed were called Caliphs. The first one, Caliph Abu Bakr, had to recall the Muslim army from the anticipated conquest of Syria to quell a revolt at home. This revolt resulted in a fierce war called the Apostasy War, which was waged against the masses that were attempting to leave Islam. The Muslims prevailed after offing the Arabian rebels a combination of attractive enticements and physical threats."
"Between the years 637 A.D. – 644 A.D. the second Caliph, Omar, authorized a number of successful raids to subjugate many of the neighboring countries. Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Armenia, Iraq and Iran were all invaded and Islamized."
"Within a century of its birth, there were many indications that Islam was making great progress on its road to establishing a New World Order. Islamic forces raged through North Africa and destroyed corrupt Byzantine Christianity in their wake. They conquered all of the Middle East, Central Asia and large portions of India. In 710 A.D. Islamic forces crossed the Straits of Gibraltar and swept through most of Spain and Portugal. France was invaded and one-third of it was captured. Fortunately, when the Muslim hordes were 125 miles from Paris, they were defeated by Charles Martel at the battle of Tours (Poitiers) in 732 A.D."
"Muslim activists constantly boast that 'Islam is the religion of peace and tolerance.' They assert that the wars of Islam were only ‘defensive’ actions in response to the aggressions of others. Historical facts belie their assertions. The nations that the Muslims conquered did not pose any threat to Arabia. The countries that the Muslims invaded had not initiated attacks. The Muslims attacked them with the motive of prospective plunder and the desire to force Islam on the rest of the world. Allah’s orders were clear, 'When the forbidden months are past, the fight and slay the Pagans wherever ye find them, and seize them beleaguer them, and lie in wait for them in every stratagem (of war); but if they repent, and establish regular prayers and practice regular charity, then open the way for them: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.' Surah 9:5"
(From the Islamization of America by Abdullah Al-Araby, 2003, 20-22).